The Authors: Philip F. Davis holds a Bachelor of Science (BSc.) degree in Economics from the University of Liberia and a Two-years Professional Diploma in Pharmaceutical Science from Southeast Technical College. He also completed a master’s in health care management from the University of Sioux Falls and a Graduate Certificate in Health Care Economics from Harvard University Business School. He is pursuing his second master’s degree in applied health economics and Outcome Research (AHEOR) at Thomas Jefferson University. He works with the South Dakota Department of Health as a Vaccine Coordinator and also works full-time with Southeastern Behavioral Health in the Integration and Education Unit

Whereas Emmanuel K. Reeves holds a Bachelor of Science Degree (BSc.) in Electronic Engineering from the Stella Maris Polytechnic and a master’s degree in Cybersecurity and Computer Forensic from Dakota State University. He has also obtained many Professional certificates in Information Technology and Artificial intelligence. He is an Analyst by profession with many years of experience. Here they write:


The present study experimentally investigates Family Planning Services and the Hazy facts that lead to economic development. It delves deeper into the mainstreaming of Sexual Reproductive Health & Rights and Family Planning into Politics, Economics, Religion, Social Entrepreneurship and Technology – Artificial Intelligence. The immense increase in the world population at the end of this century and its disparity in terms of Population density, Gender Sensitivity, Contraceptive usages, and other Family Planning services between privilege and under privilege nations, shouldn’t just be considered as an option, but should be a paramount issue on all developmental agenda which will serve as a forceful tool that leads to economic growth and prosperity. Articulating the hazy facts that lead to economic development, the programs, policies, or activities that seeks to improve the well-being and quality of life can be illustrated by considering a single-family household with a one source of income in the African context where the disposable single income is divided into two portions: Consumption and Saving. And equating this income mathematically gives the following functions: C=f(y) where C is the marginal propensity to consume and, S is the marginal propensity to save. The household disposable income is denoted as Y. Y = C+S, C = Y-S and S = Y-C. This equation simply means, when aggregate income increases, both consumption and saving increase. Finally, the Keynes psychological law laid the basis of Family Planning Services benefits to the Father, Mother, Children, and the Nation.

Keywords: Family Planning, Sexual Reproductive Health and Rights, Politics, Economics, Religion, Technology- Artificial Intelligence, Social Entrepreneurship, Population density.    


As the world’s population geared toward billions in figures, approximately some 8,045,311,447 (Worldometer projection, 2023), its disparity in terms of population density, gender sensitivity, contraceptive usages, and other family planning (FP) services between wealthy and poor nations in this milieu of ours should be considered a high priority on many economic developmental agendas of nations around the world. So, what are those hazy facts that lead to economic development? To come up with a subtle answer to this question, it is important to note what Economic development is.

According the British of Columbia government official site the term Economic Development is programs, policies or activities that seek to improve the economic well-being and quality of life for a community.

The linkage of this definition to FP services are improvement in the economic well-being and quality of life of the community. No society will be better off when the least of thee who are community dwellers are still confronted with the negative odds of high fertility rate, high maternal and infant mortality rate, high HIV/AIDS prevalence rate and rampant gender-based and sexual violence. These health factors are tied to economic growth, and they are sine qua non to economic development.

Reality Check

Just last month- September 2023, various international and national organizations, faith based organizations (FBOs), non-government organizations (NGOs) and governments gathered at the United Nations General Assembly in New York to  carve or formulate the developmental agendas for wealthy and poor nations, but it is doubtful as to whether key issues like high fertility rate, high maternal and infant mortality rate, high HIV/AIDS prevalence rate and rampant gender-based and sexual violence that hindered the growth of poor nations were encapsulate in those agenda.

Most often, critical Sexual Reproductive Health and Rights (SRH&R) and Family Planning (FP) issues that should be mainstreamed in most developmental agendas aren’t. Why?

This is because when SRH&R and FP issues evolved, they sound weird in the ears of decision and policy makers at important world fora, thus making those critical SRH&R and FP issues “hazy” and remaining untouched as decision and policy makers disembarked to their respective destinations.

Furthermore, when new methodologies/inventions are discovered/used in the field of SRH&R and FP services by experts, often they are relegated as being eccentric from the old orders.

Take for instance if SRH&R and FP services are mainstreamed in various sectors, how would it be like?

1.Mainstream SRH&R and FP into Politics

2. Mainstream SRH &R and FP into Economics

3.Mainstream SRH &R and FP into Religion

4. Mainstream SRH&R and FP into Social- Entrepreneurship

5. Mainstream SRH &R and FP into Technology – Artificial Intelligence

What are the multiplier effects when the above innovations are introduced? Let’s take it step by step.

Mainstreaming SRH &R and FP into Politics.

For many, the word “politics” has taken on a negative connotation. Whenever people think of “politics” their minds are imbued with these negative connotations of misusing power, corruption, electioneering, and populism (Pugh,2019). But politics is much more than this. Political decisions have reshaped and rekindled the epoch SRH & R and FP narratives in this contemporary era.

The ability of people to access and realize their sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) and family planning (FP) services have long been influenced by the shifting tides of politics. If this transition by mainstreaming SRH &R including FP services in Politics is occurring globally, regionally, nationally, and locally, then this would positively impact the progress in many areas, such as access to safe abortion, access to contraception, the protection of the sexual and reproductive rights of migrants and refugees including those in humanitarian and community- based settings (Pugh,2019).

One political decision that has been recorded on the pages of SRH&R and FP history is the “one and two- child policy” in China that have notched an immense economic development for China of which China is considered one of the most industrious nations on the planet with significant economic remunerations for its citizens and also sharing that economic spillover to other poor nations especially in sub-Sahara Africa.

According to a commentary published by the Brookings Research institute on the one-child policy in China which was designed in 1980 as a temporary measure to put a brake on China’s population growth and to facilitate economic growth under a planned economy that faced severe shortages of capital, natural resources, and consumer goods was later switched to the “Two-child policy” (Wang, F. et al, 2016).

Nevertheless, it was not only the stringent birth control measures implemented by China that ultimately resolved its underdevelopment, but rather a series of reform initiatives that relaxed the government’s grip on the economy, but birth control measures were the major change maker.

The remarkable economic growth experienced by China in recent decades has resulted in the significant reduction in poverty levels, with hundreds of millions of individuals being pulled out of destitution. Furthermore, this period of prosperity has facilitated access to higher education for about 100 million young individuals, fostering aspirations for economic success among multiple generations of Chinese citizens.

The acceleration of fertility drop has been documented in numerous countries and communities, coinciding with socioeconomic and cultural shifts. As the new century approached, China’s birth rate had declined significantly, falling below the replacement level. Consequently, China started to encounter increasing challenges associated with sustained low fertility.

The continuation of the one-child policy considering the prevailing demographic circumstances was evidently indefensible (Wang, F. et al, 2016). Therefore, the dawn of January 1, 2016, all Chinese couple were allowed to have two children which ends the era of the “one child policy rule. As it is observed, that the “hazy facts “of FP services mainstreamed through political decision that make the Chinese to take austerity measures have placed China on the path of economic prosperity and development.

Mainstreaming SRH &R and FP into Economics

Though SRH & R including FP services into economics are very broad. When it comes to the economic effects this paper will consider access to contraceptives and its economic ramifications. When we talked about access to contraception, there are chain of economic outcomes that are put forth as results of considering gender disparity.

The economic effect of access to contraception will augment the educational attainment of women. They will be able to take a legal route by using contraceptive measures like pills which will stop the issues of unwanted pregnancy and teenage pregnancy that will prohibit them from dropping out of school. Making use of those pills will make women and girls reached the academic echelon which will be reciprocated in massive economic gains for any given society because when women are educated, it serves as an engine of economic growth.

Secondly, labor force participation is one of the massive economic gains from the use of contraception. Women will be able to delay childbearing and increase the human capital investment in their education and career. A proportionate number of women will be incorporated in the workforce and work for number of hours which by extension will increase national outputs and economic productivity.

Thirdly, the career outcomes outlook will attract the influx of women who are educated to vent for lucrative position in the field of medicine, law, engineering, information technology and artificial intelligence just because they had access to contraception to plan their lives in a unique way.

Fourthly, are earnings, which this paper considers as a major economic indicator and boost to the economy. The more women have access to legal contraceptive services, the farther they will move on with their education and career, and better and higher will their earning be. An increase in earnings will stimulate consumption and saving. This stimulation is an injection in the economy.

Fifthly, poverty will be alleviated, which is a positive sign of economic development and growth. Women will have the sense of belonging and self-empowerment based on the decision to access contraception. They will be able to determine their future or destiny. Living in social and economic servitude will never be their portion if they have access to contraception, which will delay childbearing, and help them get education and seek better career prospects (Bernstein & Jones, 2019).

When it comes to contraceptive use, from 2000 to 2020, 49% women of reproductive ages (RA) 15 – 49 years old used contraception. In 2022, the global contraceptive prevalence of any method was estimated at 65% and modern methods stands at 58.7% for married or in union couple (WHO, 2023).

Modern Contraceptives usage is prevalent among certain age groups. Hence, given the present scenario between Western and African nations, disparity does exist. We believe that contraception is the function of wealth. Establishing the relationship between the two variables, contraception, and wealth, will most often have positive (+) relationship. Mathematically if we were to carve a model for such a situation, the parameters in such model will either be exogenous or endogenous.

Take for instance, C=f(w). The symbolic interpretation of this function is such that contraception use is the function of wealth, under the assumption where western nations are highly considered for their advancement in medical innovations and technologies. These health interventions are very cost intensive, but western nations can finance that because of their individual household wealth as compared to African nations. This means that household wealth is dependent upon the methods and types of contraceptives used in the western context as compared to Africa. Given this function, C=f(w) the more wealth that household accrues, the better the FP services they will receive and the best economic remuneration they will have.

Mainstreaming SRH &R and FP into Religion

Regarding religion and SRH & R and FP services, this is a very compound and complex discussion. There are some SRH &R including FP services that are accepted in the sphere of religion and alternatively, some of those services and rights are also forbidden because they are against religious norms and principles. Religion signifies those ways of viewing the world which we refer to as (1) a notion of sacred reality (2) made manifest in human experience (3) in such a way as to produce long-lasting ways of thinking, feeling, and acting (4) with respect to problems of ordering and understanding existence”(Cunningham, et al., Year unknown).

Religion plays a pivotal role in the lives and well-being of individuals, particularly women residing in the United States and world at large.  Religion has the potential to influence the decision-making processes and behaviors related to health among teenagers and young women, who are at a crucial stage in their social, psychological, and physical development.

When considering the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) of young women, it is important to acknowledge that sex is frequently influenced by moral and religious beliefs, in addition to being a natural aspect of development that contributes to overall health and well-being. Religious beliefs, dedication, and practices frequently have impact on several aspects of human sexuality, such as attitudes towards sexual expectancies acquired prior to and during the onset of menstruation, perspectives on first sexual intercourse, opinions on partnerships, childbirth, marriage, contraception, pregnancy, and abortion (Hall, KS et al., 2012).

Considering Christianity as one of the religions of the world, it forbids sex before marriage. According to “Roman 12:1” it urges Christians to preserve their bodies as a living sacrifice, holy and pleasing to God Almighty. Their perceptions are sex desecrate the body and abstinence as a natural family planning (FP) method is the way forward for sexually active and sexually non-active Christians.

What is the linkage here to economic development? When abstinence is pragmatized, it saves that segment of the population from contracting curable and uncurable sexual transmitted infections (STIs)/ sexual transmitted diseases (STDs) which could have horrific health complications and even lead to a massive carnage of the population. According to UNAIDS Global HIV and AIDS Statistical Facts sheet, there were 39 million people living with HIV globally in 2022 (UNAIDS – Facts sheet,2022). A vast majority of this number contracted HIV through sex.

So, if we can exhibit what religion is proposing, we will be able to save this planet from another health peril and socioeconomic decadence and foster a healthy workforce that will lead to high production of goods and service and augment economic prosperity and development. Don’t get it wrong, SRH & R and FP services have two -sides of the coins considering it from a religious perspective. Some religions forbid access to abortion, LBGT rights, condom use, but those are opposite and have an adverse effect on economic growth and development.

Mainstreaming SRH&R and FP into Social- Entrepreneurship

Social entrepreneurship is a practice that applies entrepreneurial concepts to advance the sustainable and innovative utilization of human, financial, and technology resources for the betterment of society.

In the context of sexual health, social entrepreneurship focuses on building unique, sustainable, community-responsive sexual health services. Various social entrepreneurial techniques, including social marketing, conditional cash transfers, and microenterprise, have demonstrated efficacy in promoting sexual health based on limited pilot studies. However, their widespread implementation and comprehensive evaluation have yet to be undertaken.

The issues faced by Social-Entrepreneurship for Sexual Health (SESH) stem from the increasing capabilities of community-based organizations in developing innovative techniques and models for providing sexual health services, including testing, facilitating access to care, and ensuring continued engagement in care. Social entrepreneurship can be roughly defined as the strategic utilization of various resources to identify and pursue opportunities with the goal of establishing companies or implementing practices that generate and maintain social benefits.

Further clarification is required about the association between social entrepreneurship and both the global economic slump and income generating. The primary focus of social entrepreneurship lies not in cash generating, but rather in innovation and the pursuit of social change. While several social entrepreneurs may devise strategies to produce revenue efficiently, this aspect does not constitute a crucial component of the strategic framework.

Moreover, the necessity for alternative resources is shown by the decrease in public health budgets in numerous local regions. In this regard, social entrepreneurship initiatives prove to be beneficial regardless of the phase of the economic cycle.

The use of social entrepreneurship in the realm of sexual health promotion remains limited, but there have been modest initiatives centered on social marketing of HIV/STD testing, conditional cash transfers, and microenterprise. Each of these instruments exhibits the potential to enhance the efficiency of SESH in providing high-quality sexual health treatments (Tucker, JD, et al., 2012).

Mainstreaming SRH &R and FP into Technology – Artificial Intelligence and Robotic

 Gone are the days when humans were tasked with the responsibilities of knowing everything and doing everything. Today, the responsibility is shared between humans and robots. The emergence of new technologies like Artificial Intelligence (AI) is gradually replacing humans on the job. As the world population increases, the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) of people will change or increase and the need for new technologies to augment livelihood will be necessary, but we cannot do that at the detriment of under privileged people.

 There are tremendous economic benefits for the presence of AI, but there are also consequences on the livelihood of people in under develop nations. For example, one of the highest employers in the United States has decided to use AI at their Cashiering points thus reducing human presence, known as self-checkout. Also, Amazon has instituted about 750,000 mobile robots in its facilities (Heater, 2023).

AI is not a specific technology, rather, it is a set of processes including data analytics, enabling technology, applications, and software that make existing processes smarter. (Meltzer, 2019). The enhancement that AI brings to these systems and processes are reducing human presence drastically. There are arguments on the effects versus the benefits of AI. McKinsey estimates that AI could add about 16 percent or 13 trillion to global output by 2030. (Meltzer, 2019).

While it is a known facts that AI would augment global trade if not already impacting global trade, but more attention should be placed on the actual job numbers, and more with how human employees and the public feel about the inevitable increase of robotic and AI in warehouses, manufacturing facilities and other industrial settings (Heater, 2023).

What would be the Trigger down effects on Sexual Reproductive Health & Rights and Family Planning SRH&R and FP? What will also happen to the world population, will there be an increase or decrease?

According to a prediction by the United Nations, the World population is expected to reach 11 billion by 2100. (Bateman, 2021). For example, Nigeria is 7th at 206 million as the populated countries globally, by 2100 it is expected to be 2nd at 791million. This is because of various demographic factors such as lower fertility rates, higher life expectancies and so on. (Bateman, 2021).

Most under privileged nations are expected to double in size according to these predictions, which in terms will have effects on our climate. The world is going to have a catastrophe of overpopulated countries that earned little or wages. Privileged nations might try to be more generous to under privileged nations, government might increase warfare incentive and taxed AI and augmented reality companies more.

The Path to owning your developmental agenda.

As our globe shift itself from the old order to new ways of doing things, this transition re- energizes bilateral and multilateral institutions to own and operate various policies and formulate agendas that seek to foster good decisions and choices in SRH&R and FP. It is also imperative upon those bilateral and multilateral institutions to reflect on the need of tweaking those developmental agendas and polices that would visibly display the roles and benefits of FP services in Economic Development (ED).

According to many research reports and references from UN panel of experts, like the World Health Organization (WHO) revised bulletin 2011;89:258-266 doc:1024711 BLT 10.083329 stressed the importance of FP services in western nations and that of Sub Sahara Africa. It also sad to note that:

  1. (1 out of 26 women of reproductive age (RA) dies from maternal causes in Africa, whereas the ratio of the same incidence in Europe in 1 in 9,400 women of (RA).
  2. (5 children per woman in 1950 to 2.6 children per woman today.
  3. (9%) of married women used contraceptives in 1960 and today it has been figured to be approximately 62%.
  4. (43%) of women of RAs used modern contraception.

What do the numbers above imply? It illustrates the following:

  1. Maternal and infant mortality is an issue here considering the disparity gaps between Europe and Africa.
  2. Fertility rate has falling. Meaning contraceptives have been fully utilized in this dispensation of ours, but in what regions and countries are those contraceptive services been fully utilized are issues to also look at.

The roles and benefits of Family Planning services (FP) in Economic Development.

Giving the above synopsis, what are the roles and benefits of FP services in Economic Development? Family Planning is a method that teaches an individual or couple how to make inform choices and sound decisions on when to have children, how many children to have, by whom or when to get married. It also teaches an individual or couple how to space their children, winning the child and so forth.

There are many ways FP services are transmitted to society. Below are few ways, but not limited to the following:

  1. The benefit of FP services to the father: It helps the father put his limited resources to good use. This allows him to manage his family size with his limited disposable income. Ceteris Para bus – that is holding all other facts constant:  Let assume that the father is the primary source of income generation for the family in the African context thus ignoring the fact on gender equality to make this assumption work. According to Keynes psychological law he states that ” a man disposable income is divided in to two portions: consumption and saving “.  (Economic dictionary, 2022) This can be stated as a function symbolically as C=f(y) where C is the marginal propensity to consume, and S is the marginal propensity to save which are all functions of a man’s disposable income denoted as Y.

  Y= C+S

   C=Y- S


Now, the above equations mean, when aggregate income increases consumption will increase, but by smaller amounts. The increase in income is distributed between the ratio of savings and consumption. Whereas both savings and consumptions will increase because of the increase in disposable income.

How can Keynes law be illustrated to acquiring quality (FP) service? The portion of the family income that is saved could be used to aid the father manage his family side through the following means:

  1. Speculative means: in case of future eventuality, where any member of his family is confronted or contract curable or incurable STIs or STDs, this means could be used to handle the situation because the father prepared for that through his savings by speculating the future for any eventuality.
  2. Precautionary means: it helps the father in building a protective shield for his family against curable and incurable STIs and STDs.
  3.  Transactionary means: purchasing family planning services and modern contraceptives to reduce fertility rate and to have a sizable family that commensurate with the father’s income.
  • How does family planning (FP) benefit the mother? FP helps the mother maintain a healthy lifestyle in carrying out child spacing and addressing issues of unwanted and unplanned pregnancies. It helps the mother make sound decisions and informed choices on abortion related services and unplanned pregnancies. FP services help reduce maternal and infant mortality also.
  • The benefits of FP to the children: It helps the children to have a happy family life and establishes a cordial child -to- parents’ relationship.
  • The benefit of family planning to the nation: It benefits a nation in reducing the crimes rate and dependency syndrome. It also helps governments formulate policies to maintain a sizable population in providing the general welfare for its citizens given the scarcity of resources.


Given the above narrative, we owe it to ourselves to keep being in the vanguard of engaging decision and policy makers about the prudency of the “hazy facts” of family planning services and the role it plays in economic development. Now is the time to abrogate those old orders and institute measures of mainstreaming SRH&R and FP services in various sectors. Though change may not be instantaneous, this change will surely come. As we thrive to create a paradigm shift in our world, let us not forget to continuously remind architects of those developmental agendas for wealthy and poorer nations to always reflect the urgent and fundamental needs of securing and having a sizeable and healthy population.


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